Es verdad que sin pasión no se hace nada serio en la historia, pero las pasiones de las grandes figuras de la historia son utilizadas como instrumentos del Espíritu del Mundo y muestran la astucia de la razón. She died of bilious fever (Gallenfieber) when Hegel was thirteen. In addition to some articles published early in his career and during his Berlin period, Hegel published four major works during his lifetime: During the last ten years of his life, Hegel did not publish another book but thoroughly revised the Encyclopedia (second edition, 1827; third, 1830). That history should resemble this dialectic indicated to Hegel that history is something rational. Lo que se ha llamado tesis el aspecto o momento abstracto o intelectual. Variación. Critiques of Hegel offered by the Left Hegelians radically diverted Hegel's thinking into new directions and eventually came to form a large part of the literature on and about Hegel. [30][31], Hegel's principal achievement was his development of a distinctive articulation of idealism, sometimes termed absolute idealism,[32] in which the dualisms of, for instance, mind and nature and subject and object are overcome. En la dialéctica de Hegel queda patente, pues, una voluntad de actuación sobre una realidad escindida, contradictoria y alienaba que lucha por superar esa situación. Negatividad. En la polis griega sólo algunos llegaron a ser realmente libres. Hegel's concept of Aufhebung, by which parts are preserved and repurposed within the whole, anticipates the concept of emergence in contemporary systems theory and evolutionary biology. Élete. Esta libertad se objetiva a través del Estado. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (/ˈheɪɡəl/; German: [ˈɡeːɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher of the late … Positivamente, significa el descubrimiento del concepto de subjetividad, que será interpretado por Hegel como un momento absolutamente necesario para la realización plena de la libertad y el desarrollo y perfección del espíritu. Herbert L. and Patricia Allen Dreyfus). 105 likes. [140] The physicist and philosopher Ludwig Boltzmann also criticized the obscure complexity of Hegel's works, referring to Hegel's writing as an "unclear thoughtless flow of words". La dialéctica expresa, pues, tanto la contradicción del mundo existente cuanto la necesidad de superar los límites presentes en un afán de superación movido por la necesitad de una realización total y de un modo efectivo de la libertad y de la infinitud. The rational, self-conscious whole is not a thing or being that lies outside of other existing things or minds. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel fue un filósofo alemán, considerado uno de los grandes representantes del idealismo en Alemania. Esta distinción establecía una radical distinción entre la teoría el pensamiento y la praxis la acción. [134] American neoconservative political theorist Francis Fukuyama's controversial book The End of History and the Last Man (1992) was heavily influenced by Kojève. It does not occur anywhere in, "One of the few things on which the analysts, pragmatists, and existentialists agree with the dialectical theologians is that Hegel is to be repudiated: their attitude toward Kant, Aristotle, Plato, and the other great philosophers is not at all unanimous even within each movement; but opposition to Hegel is part of the platform of all four, and of the Marxists, too.". Sus instrumentos son los grandes personajes históricos, los hombres cuyo fin individual incluye el fin universal del Espíritu. Hegel hjalp med at udvikle den tyske idealisme. This sparked a renewed interest in Hegel reflected in the work of Herbert Marcuse, Theodor W. Adorno, Ernst Bloch, Raya Dunayevskaya, Alexandre Kojève and Gotthard Günther among others. Maurice Merleau-Ponty (trans. For example: Parmenides took pure being to be the absolute; Gorgias replaced it with pure nothing; Heraclitus replaced both being and nothing with becoming (which is a unity of two contraries: coming-to-be and ceasing-to-be). Falleció en la ciudad de Berlín (capital del Reino de Prusia) el 14 de noviembre de 1831 a los 61 años.[1]. The result of this argument is that finite and infinite—particular and universal, nature and freedom—do not face one another as independent realities, but instead the latter, in each case, is the self-transcending of the former. [62] Sharing a dislike for what they regarded as the restrictive environment of the Seminary, the three became close friends and mutually influenced each other's ideas. The idea of the absolute excludes multiplicity so the subjective and objective must achieve synthesis to become whole. Although the violence of the 1793 Reign of Terror dampened Hegel's hopes, he continued to identify with the moderate Girondin faction and never lost his commitment to the principles of 1789, which he expressed by drinking a toast to the storming of the Bastille every fourteenth of July.[64]. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Recibió su formación en el Tübinger Stift (seminario de la Iglesia Protestante en Wurtemberg), donde trabó amistad con el futuro filósofo Friedrich Schelling y el poeta Friedrich Hölderlin. Pero esta afirmación lleva en su entraña un contrario, ya que la realidad no es estática, sino dinámica. Logic, particularly the doctrine of the concept, was metaphysics; it was the search for a fundamental ontological structure within the relations of the most basic predicates (quantity, time, place etc. ), a practice that goes back to Plato's Sophist and Aristotle's Categories. This research program took on new meaning with the 1781 publication of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. According to Hegel, this unity evolved through and manifested itself in contradiction and negation. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (/ˈheɪɡəl/;[27][28] German: [ˈɡeːɔʁk ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡl̩];[28][29] 27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure in German idealism. El hallazgo de la subjetividad y su carácter de principio racional y libre representará para Hegel un principio rector en la organización social y política de la vida del espíritu. Within this work, the category of life is conceived to be the absolute idea in the form of the subjective concept; an illustrative contrast may be seen in contrasting this with how the category of cognition is thought as being the absolute idea in the form of the judgement. In accordance with his wishes, Hegel was buried in the Dorotheenstadt cemetery next to Fichte and Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Solger. En ese sentido, en cuanto expresión de la filosofía de Hegel, dialéctica significa la radical oposición de Hegel a toda interpretación fragmentaria de la realidad y del conocimiento. Hegel wrote that, ...profounder insight into the antinomial, or more truly into the dialectical nature of reason demonstrates any Concept [Begriff] whatsoever to be a unity of opposed elements [Momente] to which, therefore, the form of antinomial assertions could be given.[82]. the Reign of Terror that followed) and would result in a "synthesis" (e.g. [80], The Science of Logic (which the latter Hegel considered central to his philosophy) can be considered a notable contribution to the research program of category metaphysics in its post-Kantian form, taking up the project that Kant suggested is necessary but did not himself pursue: "to take note of and, as far as possible, completely catalog" the derivative concepts of the pure understanding and "completely illustrate its family tree. [94]:146 Rather than stress the singularity of each factor that complements and conflicts with the others, the relationship between finite and infinite (and particular and universal, and nature and freedom) becomes intelligible as a progressively developing and self-perfecting whole. 2019 Phänomenologie des Geistes. Cuando uno desaparece viene otro al momento a ocupar su puesto. Por ello se dio la esclavitud. According to Benedetto Croce, the Italian Fascist Giovanni Gentile "holds the honor of having been the most rigorous neo-Hegelian in the entire history of Western philosophy and the dishonor of having been the official philosopher of Fascism in Italy". (Hegel has been seen in the twentieth century as the originator of the thesis, antithesis, synthesis triad,[34] but as an explicit phrase it originated with Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Suele interpretarse como la negación de la afirmación anterior, ya que es esa contradicción el motor de la dialéctica. A number of other works on the philosophy of history, religion, aesthetics and the history of philosophy[122] were compiled from the lecture notes of his students and published posthumously. Sy historistiese en idealistiese siening van die werklikheid het 'n rewolusie in Europese filosofie veroorsaak en het as 'n belangrike voorloper tot kontinentale filosofie, Marxisme en historisme gedien. The infinitude of spirit is its inwardness, in an abstract sense its pure inwardness, and this is its thought, and this abstract thought is a real present infinitude, while its concrete inwardness consists in the fact that this thought is Spirit. [37] Paul Tillich wrote that the historical dialectical thought of Hegel "has influenced world history more profoundly than any other structural analysis. Recent studies have questioned this paradigm. In his posthumously published Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion, Part 3, Hegel is particularly interested in demonstrations of God's existence and the ontological proof. El espíritu en su andadura histórica no cesa de destruirse y construirse constantemente. The universe as becoming is a combination of being and non-being. Stefan Gruner: "Hegel's Aether Doctrine". The Left Hegelians, also known as the Young Hegelians, interpreted Hegel in a revolutionary sense, leading to an advocation of atheism in religion and liberal democracy in politics. Most reference books say that Hegel died of cholera. Esto significa que las etapas históricas tienen un desarrollo interno dialéctico que las hace desaparecer para transformarlas en otras más ricas y potentes: es la dialéctica aplicada a la historia. La filosofía de la historia es la consideración reflexiva de la historia en cuanto que es el espíritu el que dirige esa historia. Muy influido por las ideas de los grandes pensadores griegos, también conoció las obras del holandés Baruch Spinoza, del escritor francés Jean-Jacques Rousseau y de los autores alemanes Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte y Schelling. His is the persistent Idea that is the same in all philosophers up to the present day, as it was the Idea of Plato and Aristotle". Su obra, al igual que la de otros filósofos alemanes de la época como Immanuel Kant, ejercieron un gran peso en el pensamiento, tanto en el país germánico como en el resto de Europa, allá por el siglo XVIII y XIX. "[38] Karl Barth described Hegel as a "Protestant Aquinas"[39] while Maurice Merleau-Ponty wrote that "all the great philosophical ideas of the past century—the philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche, phenomenology, German existentialism, and psychoanalysis—had their beginnings in Hegel. His studies at the Gymnasium concluded with his Abiturrede ("graduation speech") "Der verkümmerte Zustand der Künste und Wissenschaften unter den Türken" ("The abortive state of art and scholarship in Turkey").[59]:16[61]. In a separate Canadian context, James Doull's philosophy is deeply Hegelian. 2012 Hegel: Lectures on Philosophy. In his discussion of "Spirit" in his Encyclopedia, Hegel praises Aristotle's On the Soul as "by far the most admirable, perhaps even the sole, work of philosophical value on this topic". Pero no basta con tener conciencia de la libertad, sino que es necesario hacerla realidad, objetivarla. It was perfectly legitimate in Hegel's eyes for a conqueror, such as Napoleon, to come and destroy that which was not fully realized. Sigue prevaleciendo el elemento comunitario sobre el elemento individual polis griega. [citation needed]. Hay que interpretar la historia desde la racionalidad; hay que atender a los hechos para discernir el proceso racional que se da en la historia. El paso de todo la parcial hacia la totalidad. ): Texto extraído de: Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, Texto extraído de: Biografía de Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Texto extraído de: GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEGEL, Texto extraído de: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich HEGEL,, La teoría del idealismo absoluto, la dialéctica y la dialéctica del amo y el esclavo. Hegel Quotes is an Excellent source of quotes to get you thinking by famous German thinker Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. [100] In fact, Hegel's distinctions as to what he meant by civil society are often unclear. Fenomenologia do Espírito. Nevertheless, Hegel assumed that his readers are well-versed in Western philosophy. No se trata tanto de la reducción del ser al pensar, cuanto de la interpretación de lo real, del ser, como Idea o Razón: Todo lo real es racional; el que lo verdadero sólo es real como sistema o el que la sustancia es esencialmente sujeto, se expresa en la representación que enuncia lo absoluto como espíritu, el concepto más elevado de todos y que pertenece a la época moderna... Sólo lo espiritual es lo real. There are views of Hegel's thought as the summit of early 19th-century German philosophical idealism. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Stuttgart, 27 de agosto de 1770 – Berlín, 14 de noviembre de 1831), filósofo alemán nacido en Stuttgart, Wurtemberg, recibió su formación en el Tübinger Stift (seminario de la Iglesia Protestante en Wurtemberg), donde trabó amistad con el futuro filósofo Friedrich Schelling y el poeta Friedrich Hölderlin. [129], The Left Hegelians also influenced Marxism, which has in turn inspired global movements, from the Russian Revolution, the Chinese Revolution and myriad of practices up until the present moment.[129]. [150], "Hegel" redirects here. Because every concept is a composite of contraries (value is black and white, temperature is hot and cold, etc. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel skabte en filosofisk “før og efter”-tanke i Vesteuropa og det 19. århundrede Rusland.Han var en loyal beundrer af Plato, Descartes og Kant. Para Hegel el espíritu del pueblo da plenitud al individuo. Doctrines of judgment investigate relations of subject and predicate; and doctrines of inference lay out the forms of syllogisms originally found in Aristotelian term logic. as a mystic and hermetic thinker. Scribd es red social de lectura y publicación más importante del mundo. Es la etapa de madurez de la Historia: todos somos libres. Hegel's posthumous works have had remarkable influence on subsequent works on religion, aesthetics, and history because of the comprehensive accounts of the subject matters considered within the lectures, with Heidegger for example in Poetry, Language, Thought characterizing Hegel's Lectures on Aesthetics as the "most comprehensive reflection on the nature of art that the West possesses—comprehensive because it stems from metaphysics."[123]. El entendimiento para Kant sólo alcanzaba a los fenómenos, a lo finito y limitado. ); 1984; "[T]he task that touches the interest of philosophy most nearly at the present moment: to put God back at the peak of philosophy, absolutely prior to all else as the one and only ground of everything." In a Hegelian State, citizens both know their place and choose their place. For these scholars, fairly well represented by the Hegel Society of America and in cooperation with German scholars such as Otto Pöggeler and Walter Jaeschke, Hegel's works should be read without preconceptions. Among the first to take a critical view of Hegel's system was the 19th-century German group known as the Young Hegelians, which included Feuerbach, Marx, Engels and their followers. The Right Hegelians, the allegedly direct disciples of Hegel at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, advocated a Protestant orthodoxy and the political conservatism of the post-Napoleon Restoration period. This mind comprehends all of these phases and sub-parts as steps in its own process of comprehension. The following February marked the birth of Hegel's illegitimate son, Georg Ludwig Friedrich Fischer (1807–1831), as the result of an affair with Hegel's landlady Christiana Burkhardt née Fischer (who had been abandoned by her husband). And although the Logic's table of contents minimally resembles Kant's table of categories, the four headings of Kant's table (quantity, quality, relation, and modality) do not play, in Hegel's dialectic, the organizational role that Kant had in mind for them, and Hegel ultimately faulted Kant for copying the table of judgments from the "modern compendiums of logic" whose subject matter is, Hegel said, in need of "total reconstruction. It was written in Hegel's hand, but may have been authored by Hegel, Schelling, Hölderlin, or an unknown fourth person.[67]. While Aristotle criticized Plato's "Forms", he preserved Plato's ontological implications for self-determination: ethical reasoning, the soul's pinnacle in the hierarchy of nature, the order of the cosmos and reasoned arguments for a prime mover. Hegel no se fija en lo penoso del camino histórico, sino en la meta, en el fin con que se han llevado a cabo esos sucesos desagradables. His philosophy of spirit conceptually integrates psychology, the state, history, art, religion and philosophy. En este sentido hay que entender la frase De la muerte surge la vida. [96], "Mind" and "Spirit" are the common English translations of Hegel's use of the German "Geist", which combines the meaning of spirit—as in god, ghost, or mind—with an intentional force. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Stuttgart, 27 de agosto de 1770 – Berlín, 14 de noviembre de 1831) fue un filósofo alemán. The State is "objective spirit" so "it is only through being a member of the state that the individual himself has objectivity, truth, and ethical life" (section 258). Soon after, his illegitimate son Ludwig Fischer (now ten years old) joined the Hegel household in April 1817, having spent time in an orphanage[59]:354–55 after the death of his mother Christiana Burkhardt.[59]:356. La Guerra de los Treinta Años había dejado a Alemania atrasada tanto política como económicamente. His relations with his employers becoming strained, Hegel accepted an offer mediated by Hölderlin to take up a similar position with a wine merchant's family in Frankfurt in 1797. Permaneció en Jena hasta octubre de 1806, cuando la ciudad, en el transcurso de las Guerras Napoleónicas, fue ocupada por las tropas francesas, por lo que se vio obligado a huir. Hegel, at this time, envisaged his future as that of a Popularphilosoph, (a "man of letters") who serves to make the abstruse ideas of philosophers accessible to a wider public; his own felt need to engage critically with the central ideas of Kantianism did not come until 1800. According to Hegel, Heraclitus's "obscurity" comes from his being a true (in Hegel's terms "speculative") philosopher who grasped the ultimate philosophical truth and therefore expressed himself in a way that goes beyond the abstract and limited nature of common sense and is difficult to grasp by those who operate within common sense. Hegel preserved this essential Platonic and Kantian concern in the form of infinity going beyond the finite (a process that Hegel in fact related to "freedom" and the "ought"),[94]:133–136, 138 the universal going beyond the particular (in the Concept) and Spirit going beyond Nature. Pero ¿cómo puede el Espíritu, con esa enorme masa de intereses y pasiones individuales realizar el fin universal de la historia? He had no diarrhoea and no swelling. Esta distinción supone que el orden de la realidad está dividido, sin que sea posible elaborar una teoría absoluta y total sobre la realidad en su integridad. Es el espíritu del mundo o espíritu universal, la fuerza de todas las fuerzas, la profundidad de todas las profundidades. La libertad, que surgió con el Cristianismo, no llegó a tener inmediata expresión en las leyes y en las instituciones porque con el triunfo cristiano perduró la esclavitud. "[88], If we abstract 'Ding' [thing] from 'Ding an sich' [thing in itself], we get one of Hegel's standard phrases: 'an sich.' [147], Voegelin argued that Hegel should be understood not as a philosopher, but as a "sorcerer", i.e. [97], Central to Hegel's conception of knowledge, mind, and reality was identity in difference; mind externalizes itself in various forms and objects and stands outside or opposed to them and, through recognizing itself in them, is "with itself" in these external manifestations so that they are at one and the same time mind and other-than-mind. Para entender mejor esta noción de historia, veamos por separado los conceptos de espíritu y explicitación en el tiempo. T. R. Vickroy and Susan E. Blow—who were both minor associates of the St. Louis Hegelians—independently of each other translated various chapters from Göschel's book into English, and had their translations published in. By 14 November, Hegel was dead. Durante los años que residió en Nuremberg, Hegel conoció y contrajo matrimonio con Marie von Tucher, de quien tuvo tres hijos: una niña que murió al poco de nacer y dos varones Karl e Immanuel. Pelczynski, A.Z. Esta tesis epistemológica está conectada estrechamente con la tesis ontológica de que lo verdadero es el todo. Popper further proposed that Hegel's philosophy served not only as an inspiration for communist and fascist totalitarian governments of the 20th century, whose dialectics allow for any belief to be construed as rational simply if it could be said to exist. [142] Russell wrote in A History of Western Philosophy (1945) that Hegel was "the hardest to understand of all the great philosophers". It is now widely agreed that explaining Hegel's philosophy in terms of thesis–antithesis–synthesis is inaccurate. He formulated an early philosophical example of a disenchantment narrative, arguing that Judaism was responsible both for realizing the existence of Geist and, by extension, for separating nature from ideas of spiritual and magical forces and challenging polytheism. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Alemania, 1770-1831) F ilósofo alemán, máximo representante del idealismo y uno de los teóricos más influyentes en el pensamiento universal desde el siglo XIX. Desde 1807 hasta 1809, una vez agotadas las rentas que le había proporcionado la herencia paterna, trabajó como redactor en el periódico Bamberger Zeitung de Baviera. The direct and indirect influence of Kojève's lectures and writings (on The Phenomenology of Spirit in particular) mean that it is not possible to understand most French philosophers from Jean-Paul Sartre to Jacques Derrida without understanding Hegel. Hegel dice que pensar que el Estado no hace más que coartar la libertad de los individuos es pensar de forma negativa e idealista, ya que sólo el Estado es la única garantía de la libertad y de que los individuos vivan libremente. [44][45][46][47][48][49] Derrida wrote of Hegel in his work Of Grammatology that "he undoubtedly summed up the entire philosophy of the logos. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (27. elokuuta 1770 Stuttgart – 14. marraskuuta 1831 Berliini) oli saksalainen filosofi, jonka vaikutus on luultavasti ollut vahvimmillaan metafysiikassa, historianfilosofiassa sekä poliittisessa filosofiassa.Häntä pidetään saksalaisen idealismin tärkeimpänä edustajana. When he entered the Latin School two years later, he already knew the first declension, having been taught it by his mother. After the period of Bruno Bauer, Hegel's influence waned until the philosophy of British Idealism and the 20th-century Hegelian Western Marxism that began with György Lukács. Voegelin, Eric (1972). Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel - Enciclopedia de las Ciencias Filosóficas. The eternity of spirit is here brought into consciousness, and is found in this reasoned knowledge, in this very separation, which has reached the infinitude of being-for-self, and which is no longer entangled in what is natural, contingent, and external. Es un periodo que se prolonga desde la llegada del Cristianismo hasta la época actual de Hegel, se entiende. "[57][58], Hegel was born on 27 August 1770 in Stuttgart, capital of the Duchy of Württemberg in southwestern Germany. Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 100, In the 1870s and 1880s, Rev. Karen Ng writes that "there is a central, recurring rhetorical device that Hegel returns to again and again throughout his philosophical system: that of describing the activity of reason and thought in terms of the dynamic activity and development of organic life.
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